Normally, when writing an essay at university you will be expected to use only academic sources. The following learning guide on source credibility will help you to determine whether an external source is academic or not. The chocolate essay uses the APA style of referencing, which is easy to distinguish from the Harvard Author-Date System, as the format is different:
A topical outline in contrast to the argument required in graduate writing. It would be very difficult to write a solid argument based on the topical outline in Figure 2.
You would be much more likely to end up with a descriptive paper e. There are a number of other common traps that students fall into in developing their arguments. Please review the following documents to ensure that you do not make similar errors.
I have stated each key point clearly in one sentence. The logical flow between the key points is clear.
I have nested indented the key points and sub-points to make the flow of the argument clear. I based this sample argument on a book I was reading.
Contrast between an argument and a traditional outline Key Points in An Argument Traditional Outline The large-scale industrialization of food production is seriously compromising the quality of our food, and, without a revolution of the masses, both human beings and the planet will experience dire consequences.
Industrial revolution and food The family farm, a traditional foundation of the North American food industry, has been rendered obsolete and noncompetitive. Loss of the family farm Mass production has become the focus of the industry, with most of the agricultural and grazing land now controlled by large corporations running massive food production factories.
Mass production Food is no longer assessed by its nutritional value and taste; the new criteria include durability for transport, size consistency, even ripening time, and volume of produce.
Change in assessment criteria Changing the values that drive production has resulted in serious consequences for the quality of food we eat.
Impact on food quality The vitamin and mineral content of most fruits and vegetables has been reduced by half in less than 50 years.
Nutritional value What has been added to the food instead are pesticides and other hazardous materials that are by-products of industrialization. Chemical exposure Most North Americans have now forgotten what it is like to savour the flavour of a field-fresh tomato; whole foods are losing flavour and losing their appeal.
Lack of appeal Both the loss of nutritional value and the addition of chemical toxins are already having a dramatic effect on human health.
Impact on human health Etc. Pawlick,Vancouver, BC: Critically analyzing and extrapolating the argument presented by another writer, as I have demonstrated in Table 2. It forces you to think critically and to synthesize the information into succinct statements using your own words.
However, do not use this as the argument for your paper as if it reflects your own ideas. Exercise 3 Take a few minutes to come up with a purpose and thesis statement that might fit for the argument above.
Then complete Exercise 3 to put into practice the principles you have learned. Synthesis and integration of the literature At this point, you have a clear argument drafted with key points and sub-points to support the thesis of your paper.
Make sure that each paragraph or group of paragraphs relates to one of the key points in your argument. You may want to copy each of your key points to the first line of the paragraph that elaborates on that point.
The key point becomes the topic sentence for that paragraph and ensures that the reader can easily follow the flow of your argument. If you have effectively tracked the sources of your ideas, you may find that you have already clearly supported some of the key points and sub-points in your argument; in other cases, you may need to revise the paragraph s to provide sufficient evidence to support the key point.
This might mean going back to the ideas you generated and organized through your preliminary research on the topic or you might have to go in search of additional sources to inform and support your points.
Students sometimes have difficulty understanding how the purpose of the paper e. Read the criteria associated with each level and then analyze the statements on the right to see how well they reflect these criteria.
Notice how the nature of the statements changes as the level of learning targeted increases. Remember, it is difficult to accomplish all the goals associated with a particular level in one or two statements; these are simply intended as examples.
I have not included the skills domain, because this would rarely be assessed through a paper. I have now added fictional citations to reinforce the importance of synthesizing the professional literature to support your points.
You will learn how to accurately cite your sources in Chapter 4. Notice that even when you are speaking about your own attitudes, beliefs, and values e. Synthesis use old ideas to create new ones or generalize to new situations integrate knowledge from several areas predict, draw conclusions A logical extension to the social determinants of health argument is that the responsibility for change rests predominant with those of us who benefit from inequities and social injustices Frankel, ; Nuttgens, Bear in mind that these guidelines do not apply to text you are directly quoting from your sources (including interviews).
Too informal. Academic writing is generally more formal than the writing we see in non-academic materials (including on websites).
Writing a Short Literature Review William Ashton, Ph.D. York College, CUNY A student began a short literature review on the stigma of the mentally ill and perceptions of dangerousness.
Working through PsychArticles she found three likely articles. When she read each, she wrote a paragraph description of each: Literature Review Example. Oct 16, · How to Publish a Research Paper. In this Article: Article Summary Submitting (and Resubmitting) Your Paper Choosing the Right Journal for Submission Strengthening Your Submission Research Paper Help Community Q&A Publishing a research paper in a peer-reviewed journal is an important activity within the academic community.
Writing thesis acknowledgements is itself an elated feeling which makes you think the conclusion of the thesis so ultimately you are feeling great and prefer to say good words. There are several ideas to help you out for writing thesis acknowledgement.
Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.
Quantitative research focuses on gathering.
Guide for Authors updated September The Aims and Scope of Food Chemistry are assessed and modified on an annual basis to reflect developments in the field.