Abstract Prior to the introduction of cosmopolitan medicine, traditional medicine used to be the dominant medical system available to millions of people in Africa in both rural and urban communities. However, the arrival of the Europeans marked a significant turning point in the history of this age-long tradition and culture. This paper examines the trends and challenges of traditional medicine in Africa. The impact of colonialism on African traditional medicine is also examined.
Find articles by Chris Patterson Heather M. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine referred to the combining of mainstream medical therapies and CAM as integrative medicine.
The creation of integrative health care teams will definitely result in redefining roles, but more importantly in a change in how services are delivered. The purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the necessary health care agency resources to support an integrative practice model.
But making traditional medicine truly mainstream — incorporating its knowledge into modern healthcare and ensuring it meets modern safety and efficacy standards — is no easy task and is far from complete. Ayurveda and yoga are working their way into mainstream medicine by incorporating these two sister sciences into mainstream culture. Ayurveda focuses on herbs, lifestyle modifications, diet/nutrition, and body work. The Maharishi Ayurveda health program is the fastest growing system of alternative medicines in the United States, with over 3. It may be recognized that some alternative therapies may be beneficial and therefore warrant further investigation and possible integration into mainstream medical practice. However, because of the lack of reliable scientific evidence and clinical validation, safety has .
A logic model is used to depict the findings of a review of current evidence. Logic models are designed to show relationships between the goals of a program or initiative, the resources to achieve desired outputs and the activities that lead to outcomes. The four major resource categories necessary for implementing integrative care are within the domains of a professional and research development, b health human resource planning, c regulation and legislation and d practice and management in clinical areas.
It was concluded that the system outcomes from activities within these resource categories should lead to freedom of choice in health care; a culturally sensitive health care system and a broader spectrum of services for achieving public health goals.
For some practitioners, integrative medicine is difficult to achieve since questions linger about which therapies should be integrated and how should they be integrated Richardson, However, despite the chaotic nature of CAM introduction into health care systems, there continues to be a slow shift away from the traditional belief that healing can be explained solely by the bio-medical model towards a holistic approach in which many therapies could conceivably be used in prevention and treatment.
Over the last few years, there has been increased awareness and use of CAM in many countries, including Canada, without the health care infrastructure to support it Statistic Canada, ; Millar, ; Millar, The importance of provider consensus has been highlighted in regard to the philosophical underpinnings of an integrative approach to care; equal consideration for the healing potential of differing treatment modalities; commitment to holism; and practice environments that support partnerships and dissemination of evidenced based knowledge on CAM Francoeur et al.
Although provider consensus is a necessary step in the process of advancing integrative medicine, a health systems strategy is also required in order to foster implementation.
The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to describe a model of the necessary health care agency resources to support an integrative practice model.
Methods The following electronic data bases were searched from to The search strategy was refined through the iterative testing of several terms and incorporation of new terms as relevant citations were identified. The following keyword combinations were used: A criterion for selection was the presence of at least one of the known key elements which define practice within health care agencies: Any other influencing factors for role development which were unique to integrative practice models were identified by one of the authors and incorporated into the search strategy.
The purpose of the review was to extract from the literature activities which were unique to implementation of integrative practice models rather than to discuss common role development strategies. Since this area of research has most often used qualitative approaches and expert opinion, there was no attempt to exclude on the basis of design.
Articles on curriculum development were not reviewed; again because they were not directly related to the clinical implementation of integrative models.
The literature review only included articles in English; this may be a limitation. Logic models are visual displays that show the relationships among resources invested, the activities performed, and the resulting outcomes in relation to desired goals.
Therefore, logic models are templates to be completed, with appropriate information from reliable sources, to guide program development or an initiative within an organization.
The components of a logic model applied to integrative health care practice are as follows: The inputs of this logic model were based on known, important parameters defining practice in the health care system; important organizational considerations when implementing a practice; and what was identified in the literature review as important to implementing integrative practice.
The remaining sections of the logic model- activities, outputs and outcome- were identified and extracted from the findings of the literature search. Findings The logic model provides a visual representation of the findings of the literature review and addresses the purpose of this paper Fig.
Logic models are designed to depict the relationships between the goals of a program or initiative, the resources inputs to achieve desired outputs, and the activities that lead to outcomes Rush and Ogborne, The resources seen as necessary for successful implementation of integrative care are identified as the inputs and are attached to associated activities in the model.It may be recognized that some alternative therapies may be beneficial and therefore warrant further investigation and possible integration into mainstream medical practice.
However, because of the lack of reliable scientific evidence and clinical validation, safety has . Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities, largely derived from early systems of medicine, with their emphasis on mind—body—consciousness approaches to healthcare, may serve us well as a starting point of the revamping process.
But making traditional medicine truly mainstream — incorporating its knowledge into modern healthcare and ensuring it meets modern safety and efficacy standards — is no easy task and is far from complete.
May 06, · Alternative medicine practitioners are aware that 80% of allopathic medicine is not backed by any scientific evidence.
It's a no-brainer to conclude that all the hype and hoopla about "evidence-based medicine" is pharma. company propaganda to build market share. Jul 03, · Traditional medicine (TM), variously known as ethno-medicine, folk medicine, native healing, or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), is the oldest form of health care system that has stood the test of time.
The popularity of complementary and alternative medicine in South Africa has resulted in calls for it to be integrated into the country’s health care and medical education systems.
But there are two problems. Firstly, integrative measures into medical and health schools in South Africa are almost non-existent.