March 26, From a very early point in the history of philosophy, philosophers have been asking questions about human nature and about how we develop. These questions have led to a range of theories about human development and have extended from the philosophical sphere into the realms of psychology and educational research. Along with this expansion into other areas of studies, the questions being asked are also changing.
When opportunities arise that may fit in with the behaviours use and provided the perceived rewards of displaying the behaviour aggressive or not outweigh the perceived costs, the behaviour will be displayed. The individual must be capable of reproducing the observed behaviour themselves and possess the skills required to imitate it too.
If aggression is successfully carried out and reinforced through achieving the desired goal, the children may gain confidence in its use increasing their self-efficacy.
This would then result in them attaching greater value to using aggression in other situations to achieve desired outcomes. If children were unsuccessful in using aggression then they are likely to be less confident and have a lower sense of self-efficacy in using aggression in conflict situations.
This may direct them into using other methods to solve problems encountered.
Key Social Learning Theory Studies For Aggression Bandura et al conducted a study involving children who observed an adult model engaging in aggressive and non-aggressive behaviour towards a life sized inflatable bobo doll.
The children were then tested to see whether their subsequent behaviour imitated aggression in the absence of the adult model. They were split between two conditions which saw one exposed to an adult model behaving aggressively towards the bobo doll and the other group behaving non-aggressively.
The aggression displayed in the aggressive condition involved striking the bobo doll with a mallet, kicking and even verbal aggression. The children in the aggressive condition were seen to reproduce more physical and verbal aggression which imitated the adult model than the non-aggressive condition which saw almost no aggression displayed towards the bobo doll.
One third of the children from the aggressive condition group replicated the same verbal aggression as displayed by the adult model while none of the non-aggressive condition children displayed any verbal aggression.
Males boys were seen to imitate more physical aggression but the level of verbal aggression was similar between children in the aggressive condition.
This study highlighted how aggression could be learnt through observed behaviour and this occurred even without any reinforcements.
This study however does not explain why the behaviour was imitated without reinforcements.
A similar setup to the previous study was used except this time children observed a short film where a model was aggressive towards the bobo doll both physically and verbally. This time however there were 3 conditional groups: One group observed a model behave aggressively and then rewarded for this behaviour reinforcement was given through sweets, drinks and praise.
Another condition saw the model behave aggressively but then be punished told off for this aggression towards the doll. The control condition saw no consequences for the aggressive behaviour.
After watching the video the children were again frustrated by being shown toys they could not play with before being let into a room where the bobo doll and other toys were present.
The children were then offered a reward for imitating the models behaviour they had seen in the film clip. Prior to the reward the children who had observed the model be punished for their aggression towards the doll were seen to be least aggressive compared to the other two conditions.
The group who saw the model rewarded as well as the control group who saw no reinforcement displayed similar levels of aggression. Once the reward was introduced however all three groups performed the same level of aggressive behaviours highlighting that the aggression had been learnt irrespective of reinforcement.
Conclusions drawn Reinforcement is not needed for learning behaviour and observation appears to be enough for this. For behaviour to be imitated however there needs to be an expectation of reinforcement or reward for it to be displayed.
Strengths And Weaknesses Of Social Learning Theory Strengths The fact that the children imitated aggressive behaviour matching that of the models showed that learning of aggression had taken place from the models supporting social learning as an explanation for acquiring aggressive acts.
This is a major strength as it explains how behaviour may be learnt in the absence of any direct reinforcement which traditional learning theories could not fully account for.
Vicarious learning can account for the absence of any reinforcement which suggests the explanation has validity. Another major strength for social learning theory is that it can account for differences in aggressive and non-aggressive behaviour both between and within each individual.
People learn that aggression is rewarded in some situations and not others and context-dependent learning takes place which explains differences within individuals.
Social learning theory may also account for differences in aggression between cultures. The Kung San tribe of the kalahari desert are seen to have extremely low levels of aggression and violence among their people.
Social learning can explain through their child rearing practices as they have been observed to not reinforce any aggressive behaviours in children instead opting to distract them.Social learning theory was created by Bandura and Walters () to explain aggression and the acquiring of new behaviour.
They felt aggression could not be explained solely through the use of behaviourism and learning theory principles with only direct experience and reinforcement accounting for new behaviour.
Power and Love: A Theory and Practice of Social Change [Adam Kahane] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The two methods most frequently employed to solve our toughest social problems—either relying on violence and aggression or submitting to endless negotiation and compromise—are fundamentally flawed.
This is because the seemingly contradictory drives behind . Social-emotional learning (SEL) helps students succeed both in the classroom and in life—ultimately setting them up to be thoughtful and productive adults.
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.
From a very early point in the history of philosophy, philosophers have been asking questions about human nature and about how we develop. These questions have led to a range of theories about human development and have extended from the philosophical sphere into the realms of psychology and educational research.
Aggression and Social Learning Theory Aggression, in its broadest sense, is behavior, or a disposition, that is forceful, hostile or attacking. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation.