This is the most controversial post I have ever written in ten years of blogging.
No Comments Traditionally, the differences existing between sexes and genders were discussed among psychologists who attempted to reveal the essence and major causes of these differences. As a result, a variety of perspectives on gender and sex has been developed in psychology. It is worthy of mention that, regardless the numerous theories and approaches to this problem, the universal theory has not been developed yet.
At any rate, there is not a single theory that could be accepted by all specialists working on the problem of sex and gender. Nevertheless, some theories became really popular and found numerous supporters who sincerely believe that these theories are correct and clearly explain the major differences existing between sexes and their causes.
In this respect, it is possible to name biological and evolutionary psychology which developed their unique view on sex and gender and which attempted to explain scientifically the difference between sexes and its causes. Biological psychology Biological psychology is probably one of the most popular theoretical approaches to sex and gender.
However, this approach may be viewed as traditional one because it attempts to explain the difference that exists between sexes by purely biological factors p. Basically, the biological perspective on psychology and sex implies that sex differences are determined by three groups of factors, including sexing of bodies, sex differences in the brain and biological correlates of behaviour p.
The latter is mainly determined by the former two factors. On analyzing biological psychology in relation to sex and gender, it is necessary to point out that this approach primarily singles out the existing physical differences between male and female bodies. To put it more precisely, the supporters of this approach argue that male and female differs considerably in their body construction.
This means that male and female have physical features which are typical uniquely for each sex. Among these physical features they name genitals, anthropologic difference between male and female, such as average height, physical strength, etc.
In such a way, biological psychology stands on the ground that male and female are physically different and have different physical opportunities that, to a significant extent, defines their behaviour which turns to be typical to their sex and depends on their physical capabilities.
At the same time, along obvious, external, physical features due to which males and females are distinguished, there are more profound differences, which are hidden from a human eye but which effect may be even stronger than the effect of external, physical differences.
In fact, biological psychologists argue that males and females have a different balance of hormones p. In this respect, it should be said that even though all humans have the similar set of hormones but their balance may differ that actually, according to biological psychologists, defines the difference between males and females.
Moreover, biological psychology stands on the ground that the difference may be traced even in one of the most important organs of human body, the brain. Such difference actually determines the difference in behaviour of males and females. For instance, biological psychology admits the existence of brain lateralization between males and females, which determines the significant difference in behaviour and abilities of males and females.
To put it more precisely, it is a scientifically proved fact that right and left hemispheres of human brain are specialized on different cognitive functions. The left hemisphere is responsible for language while the right for visuo-spatial and mathematical functioning p. In this respect, biological psychologists point out that males and females have difference in the development or domination of hemispheres.
For instance, the left hemisphere is dominating in females brain while the right one in males brain. As a result, due to the existence of numerous physiological or biological differences in the body sexing, brain, hormone balance and genes combination the behaviour of males and females differ considerably so that males and females may be more successful in different spheres.
Evolutionary psychology Unlike the biological approach, the evolutionary perspective on gender and sex is based on the idea that the difference between males and females is basically determined by the evolution of humans as one of the species p.
At the same time it is worthy of mention that evolutionary psychology basically refers to the behavioural differences between males and females p. Speaking about evolutionary psychology, it should be pointed out that this approach basically stands on the ground that the difference between sexes and behaviour of males and females are determined by the difference in their optimal reproductive style p.
In fact, the behavioural difference between males and females is determined by their reproductive success which forces them act differently. In this respect, it is necessary to underline that, in the course of the evolution, it was extremely important to females to bear children and take care about their development after their birth.
What is meant here is the fact that females should pay more attention to the qualities of their sexual partners in order to provide their children with larger number of positive qualities which could guarantee their survival in the process of evolution. Typically to evolutionists, evolutionary psychology underlines that reproductive success of females depended on their selection of circumstances and sexual partners in order to get healthier and more competitive offspring p.Analyzes the social causes of gender inequality.
Explores origins, economics, politics, power, sexuality, violence, ideology, and other potential causes. Biography. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, There is a little mystery about his heritage: His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born.
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Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields. In humans, biological sex is determined by five factors present at birth: the presence or absence of a Y chromosome, the type of gonads, the sex hormones, the internal reproductive anatomy (such as the uterus), and the external genitalia.
Genetic sex is determined solely by .