While these classical theorists approached Marx from a general sociological vantage point, later scholars adopted a Marxian perspective from which to consider sociological questions, including the influence of class structures on the state, the human sciences, and popular culture, as well as the dynamics of social stratification systems. In his widely read and debated Ideology and UtopiaKarl Mannheim Hungarian born, schooled in Germany and France tapped into Marxist ideas for research on the sociology of knowledge. Scholars at the Institute for Social Research—later known collectively as the Frankfurt school and including most notably Herbert Marcuse Reason and Revolution, ; One-Dimensional Man,Max Horkheimer Critical Theory,and Theodor Adorno Negative Dialectics, —examined how commodity markets and bureaucratic planning shape science and popular culture e.
Immanuel Kant[ edit ] Immanuel Kant is believed to have had the greatest influence of any philosopher of modern times. Kantian philosophy was the basis on which the structure of Marxism was built—particularly as it was developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Hegel's dialectical methodwhich was taken up by Karl Marxwas an extension of the method of reasoning by antinomies that Kant used. His views were widely taught and his students were highly regarded.
His followers soon divided into right-wing and left-wing Hegelians. Theologically and politically, the right-wing Hegelians offered a conservative interpretation of his work. They emphasized the compatibility between Hegel's philosophy and Christianity.
Politically, they were orthodox.
The left-wing Hegelians eventually moved to an atheistic position. In politics, many of them became revolutionaries. Marx's view of history, which came to be called historical materialismis certainly influenced by Hegel's claim that reality and history should be viewed dialectically.
Hegel believed that the direction of human history is characterized in the movement from the fragmentary toward the complete and the real which was also a movement towards greater and greater rationality. Sometimes, Hegel explained that this progressive unfolding of the Absolute involves gradual, evolutionary accretion, but at other Marxs influence on community development requires discontinuous, revolutionary leaps—episodal upheavals against the existing status quo.
For example, Hegel strongly opposed slavery in the United States during his lifetime and envisioned a time when Christian nations would radically eliminate it from their civilization. While Marx accepted this broad conception of history, Hegel was an idealist and Marx sought to rewrite dialectics in materialist terms.
He summarized the materialistic aspect of his theory of history in the preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production.
The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness.
Marx’s Influence on Community Development This essay explores Marx’s influence on community development, within the parameters of social justice. I felt it was necessary to narrow down the focus of this topic as Marx has been translated, philosophized, reiterated, rewritten and rethought by a plethora of philosophers, sociologists. Coming Sept (3) 9/11 Truth Live Video Streams San Francisco Bay Area 9/11 Truth Film Festival Washington DC 9/11 Truth Event in front of US Cap. Describe the salient features of the poverty alleviation programmes. What modifications would you suggest to make them more effective? ( words).
The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness.
In this brief popularization of his ideas, Marx emphasized that social development sprang from the inherent contradictions within material life and the social superstructure. This notion is often understood as a simple historical narrative: Slave states had developed into feudal societies.
Those societies in turn became capitalist states and those states would be overthrown by the self-conscious portion of their working classor proletariatcreating the conditions for socialism and ultimately a higher form of communism than that with which the whole process began.
Marx illustrated his ideas most prominently by the development of capitalism from feudalism and by the prediction of the development of communism from capitalism.
Ludwig Feuerbach and Marx's theory of alienation Ludwig Feuerbach was a German philosopher and anthropologist. Feuerbach proposed that people should interpret social and political thought as their foundation and their material needs. He held that an individual is the product of their environment and that the whole consciousness of a person is the result of the interaction of sensory organs and the external world.
Marx and Engels saw in Feuerbach's emphasis on people and human needs a movement toward a materialistic interpretation of society. Accordingly, Marx argued that it is the material world that is real and that our ideas of it are consequences, not causes, of the world.
Thus, like Hegel and other philosophers, Marx distinguished between appearances and reality. However, he did not believe that the material world hides from us the real world of the ideal; on the contrary, he thought that historically and socially specific ideology prevented people from seeing the material conditions of their lives clearly.
What distinguished Marx from Feuerbach was his view of Feuerbach's humanism as excessively abstract and so no less ahistorical and idealist than what it purported to replace, namely the reified notion of God found in institutional Christianity that legitimized the repressive power of the Prussian state.
Instead, Marx aspired to give ontological priority to what he called the real life process of real human beings as he and Engels said in The German Ideology In direct contrast to German philosophy, which descends from heaven to earth, here we ascend from earth to heaven.
That is to say, we do not set out from what men say, imagine, conceive, nor from men as narrated, thought of, imagined, conceived, in order to arrive at men in the flesh.
We set out from real, active men, and on the basis of their real life process we demonstrate the development of the ideological reflexes and echoes of this life process. The phantoms formed in the human brain are also, necessarily, sublimates of their material life process, which is empirically verifiable and bound to material premises.
Morality, religion, metaphysics, all the rest of ideology and their corresponding forms of consciousness, thus no longer retain the semblance of independence.
They have no history, no development; but men, developing their material production and their material intercourse, alter, along with this, their real existence, their thinking, and the products of their thinking.
Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life.Disease Control Priorities In Developing Countries: T+ 18 MB: The Model Preacher: Comprised In A Series Of Letters Illustrating The Best Mode Of Preaching The Gos.
In this lesson, we will discuss the difference between socialism and capitalism, how Karl Marx believed that social class dictated one's social.
Community development is the process of building equitable and vibrant communities in which all citizens can participate and share in the rewards of sustainable economic, ecological, and social development.
Influences on Karl Marx are generally thought to have been derived from three sources, namely German idealist philosophy, Marx emphasized that social development sprang from the inherent contradictions within material life and the social superstructure. Coming Sept (3) 9/11 Truth Live Video Streams San Francisco Bay Area 9/11 Truth Film Festival Washington DC 9/11 Truth Event in front of US Cap.
Chapter Three. The Jewish Question. To illustrate the history of the Jewish people from its earliest beginnings down through the ages to the present day, as seen and depicted by the Jewish mind itself, we give the following account from the Chicago Tribune, July 4,