Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol.
This work is protected by copyright and may be linked to without seeking permission.
Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Please contact mpub-help umich. For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. Abstract Violence is not a single kind of activity, but rather a socially defined category of activities that share some common features.
This article presents a social perspective on violence that calls attention to the meanings of violence and to other social factors that promote and support or, alternatively, oppose and restrict violence. Implications for prevention and intervention are examined. Electronic mail may be sent via Internet to blume oakland.
Violence is a social phenomenon. For an action to be considered violent, it needs a victim or a group of victims. The An analysis of violent behavior in society nature of violence seems to call for explanations or understandings that also are interpersonal.
Rather than look inside the perpetrator for the causes of violence, social perspectives look in the social situation for factors that may explain why violence is not universal but instead varies in frequency and intensity. The social question is not, "Why does violence occur? Rather, this review is intended to help prevent violence by contributing to the understandings of the social influences contributing to violence.
Social Realities People's individual experiences become social as they are shared. Individuals can be in the same place or be exposed to the same events electronically, or they can use a symbolic means to communicate their experiences to others. It is the combined experiences of many individuals, shared in these ways, that makes up a culture, a society, or a family.
Within cultures, societies, and families, shared experiences are organized into categories of events referred to variously as concepts, constructs, and schemas. The social construction of reality occurs naturally at an informal level. An older person is jostled by a group of young people, returns to his or her peers, and talks about how and where it occurred, about who was present and how the bystanders responded, and about the characteristics of the assailants, etc.
As such accounts are shared, a social group builds a model of common experience in which the personal experience becomes universal and members of the group see each other and their social world in similar ways.
It is not only the "victim" who participates in constructing such accounts; the "aggressor" as well relives the experience with others who see the event in similar ways e.
In many cases, the account works to justify further or increased violence Staub, In the formal process of theory-building, scholars also attempt to understand and to explain social phenomena.
Scholars are expected to recognize the limitations of their shared experience, rather than to generalize their conclusions to all people and all situations. Scholars are also expected to be careful and methodical about their ways of gathering and handling information.
Theorists may organize events sequentially, looking at the causal factors and consequences of violence, or they may organize events into abstractions—such as levels of violence or forces acting on individuals to create violence. As opposed to popular accounts, formal theories are supposed to undergo a rigorous examination to determine their validity their faithfulness to the data and their usefulness.
Quite different theories may each be useful in different ways, and each may also be valid as it describes a part of the whole experience. Some social theorists have attempted to create "metatheories" that incorporate and reconcile a number of more limited, specific theories. The social approach to violence includes both formal and informal understandings.
What these understandings have in common is their emphasis on the common—rather than the individual—experience. Because of this emphasis on shared experience in social groupings, social theories are most useful in suggesting ways in which behavior change can be accomplished by addressing social phenomena rather than by attempting to alter the individual.
In the past, some violent acts were integrated into society by either justifying the violent actions or by attributing the actions to individual psychopathology.
In the family environment, the violent male was seen as enforcing a natural rule that men should direct the activities of their wives and children.
Violence in a political context—war and revolution—was seen as the inevitable outcome when opposing rulers struggled over resources or when an oppressed people attempted to free themselves.
When the actions of an individual or a group of individuals were too hard to justify, societies protected themselves by judging the offender s to be different from other people.
Over the years, such individuals were viewed as possessed by devils, suffering from brain fever, mentally retarded, or having missing out on emotional connections with other humans. There are continuing debates about whether or not society has actually become more violent Warr, Popular accounts describe a changed world—one in which the idyllic community of the s has given way to a violent society characterized by drug wars, sexual assaults on children, robbery and killing on neighborhood streets, and violence in school corridors.Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior.
A meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and .
What is Continuing Education? Continuing education is essential for anyone involved in the field of behavior analysis, and not just because it is a BACB ® requirement for maintaining certification..
Continuing education is a way of staying up-to-date on the latest developments in the field and keeping material essential to your successful practice . Board of Directors. Journal of Behavioral Profiling. Annual Meeting. Criminal Profiling Professional Certification Act of Synonyms: behavior, conduct, bearing, deportment, comportment, demeanor These nouns all pertain to a person's actions as they constitute a means of evaluation by others.
Behavior is the most general: The children were on their best behavior. Conduct applies to actions considered from the standpoint of morality and ethics: "Life, not the parson, . A study from the University of Toledo showed that playing violent video games could desensitize children and youth to violence, but didn’t establish a definitive connection with real-world behavior, positive or negative.
War is a state of prolonged violent large-scale conflict involving two or more groups of people, usually under the auspices of government. It is the most extreme form of collective violence.
War is fought as a means of resolving territorial and other conflicts, as war of aggression to conquer territory or loot resources, in national self-defence or liberation, .