The article provides history of the airline industry which includes the emergence of strategic alliances, budget carriers, competition and collaboration, cultural assessment and finishes off with a SWOT Analysis and perspective of the future of the Star Alliance. Airline History The airline industry has grown and evolved by leaps and bounds since the early days of the Wright Brothers. The airline industry took flight and yielded its first signs of competition in the late s with deregulation. This act caused the slow reduction in the powers of the Civil Aeronautics Board, which up to that point had strong control over pricing, market entry and most other airline functions.
Institutional Constraints and Deforestation: An Application to Mexico Study from: Following Norththis article hypothesizes that effective rural institutions may impose additional costs on tropical deforestation through agricultural conversion. This allows a formal agricultural household analysis of institutional constraints on deforestation and therefore a method of empirically testing whether there is any significant difference in the actual level of forest land conversion under institutional constraints [collectively owned and managed land or ejido] compared to the level of conversion under pure open access.
A dynamic panel analysis for agricultural planted area in Mexico at state level and over the —85 period confirms that institutional constraints on land clearing affected deforestation during the pre-NAFTA era [ie institutional constraints limited agricultural expansion compared to pure open access].
Institutional constraints and deforestation: An application to Mexico. This paper examines evidence of the effects of economic liberalization and globalization on rural resource degradation in developing countries.
The principal resource effects of concern are processes of land use change leading to forestland conversion, degradation and deforestation.
Such reforms have clearly spurred agroindustrialization, rural development and economic growth, but there is also concern that there may be direct and indirect impacts on rural resource degradation.
However, there may also be indirect effects if agroindustrial development displaces landless, near-landless and rural poor generally, who then migrate to marginal agricultural lands and forest frontier regions.
This paper explores these direct and indirect effects of globalization and agroindustrialization on rural resource degradation both generally, plus through examining case study evidence. The paper focuses in particular on the examples of structural adjustment, trade liberalization and agricultural development in Ghana, and maize sector liberalization in Mexico under North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA.
Links between economic liberalization and rural resource degradation in the developing regions. Mexico El Salto Region Abstract: In this analysis the costs and benefits received by the owners of the land in ejido La Victoria, where a dam is to be built, were compared.
Scenarios were analyzed considering the inclusion of subsidies and government transfers to the ejidatarios if necessary, to encourage their cooperation, by allowing to build the dam on their land and accepting to perform actions for the maintenance and conservation of protective vegetation in the microbasin, for the 60 years comprising project.
In this case the costs are assumed by the Ejidatarios and by the government. Spain Murcia and Turkey Karapinaralso: Cape Verde, Mexico, Turkey Eski? This can sometimes means that SLM technologies are only adopted across small areas.
This case study focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on scientific monitoring and modelling results. We analysed workshop outcomes from 15 dryland study sites to evaluate how scientific and model results affected perceptions of local SLM technologies, assessing the potential of this approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM.
In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of field measurements and modelling assessments.
Workshops from two study sites Spain and Turkey were used to: In Spain, four SLM strategies had been selected by participants for field trials in south-eastern Spain. Three of them were perceived as easy to implement, economically feasible and effective towards protection of soil and water.
Although the ranking of the technologies changed in light of the scientific monitoring and modelling information, overall it encouraged Spanish land users to pursue the use of all technologies except mulching.
Minimum tillage field experiments unexpectedly gave low yields and fared poorly in stakeholder evaluations in comparison with the other strategies. This resulted in their de-prioritisation due to their economic implications, which presented an associated opportunity cost for land users.
From the evaluations, we conclude that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be put alongside traditional beliefs and information on their economic implications, and scrutinised with equal rigour.
Adoption and wider dissemination of key SLM technologies requires a range of different mechanisms appropriate to the particular technology and context under consideration.
These included improved communication, dissemination and publicity associated with technologies, capacity building, training and education, networking, coordination and integration with existing programmes and mechanisms, and provision of funding and economic incentives.
Model outputs were considered helpful in determining the impacts of technologies over larger areas, as well as demonstrating where technologies are not applicable, have a lower impact or are economically unfeasible.
These findings are particularly useful for policy makers who may wish to introduce a particular technology or mechanism and need to ensure it is adopted over a large area. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modelling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation.Stepwise Methodology in Discriminant Analysis Huberty () stated that discriminant analysis (DA) includes a set of response variables and a set of one or more grouping or nominally scaled variables.
Introduction. Tourism is widely perceived as a potential economic base, providing elements that may improve quality of life such as employment opportunities, tax revenues, economic diversity, festivals, restaurants, natural and cultural attractions, and outdoor recreation opportunities.
This paper examines event tourism as a field of study and area of professional practice updating the previous review article published in Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited.
🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. Age of Exploration. Explore five centuries of journeys across the globe, scientific discovery, the expansion of European colonialism, conflict over territories and trade routes, and the race to map and conquer new dominions.