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The town of La Haye, which lies 47 kilometers south of Tours, has subsequently been renamed Descartes. When Descartes was thirteen and one-half months old, his mother, Jeanne Brochard, died in childbirth. But he did not neglect his birth place in La Haye: He followed the usual course of studies, which included five or six years of grammar school, including Latin and Greek grammar, classical poets, and Cicero, followed by three years of philosophy curriculum.
By rule, the Jesuit philosophy curriculum followed Aristotle; it was divided into the then-standard topics of logic, morals, physics, and metaphysics. The Jesuits also included mathematics in the final three years of study.
Aristotle's philosophy was approached through textbook presentations and commentaries on Aristotle's works. Aristotle himself frequently discussed the positions of his ancient predecessors.
The most extensive commentaries also elaborated in some detail on positions other than Aristotle's. Within this framework, and taking into account the reading of Cicero, Descartes would have been exposed in school to the doctrines of the ancient atomists, Plato, and the Stoics, and he would have heard of the skeptics.
Hence, although scholastic Aristotelian philosophy was dominant in his school years, it was not the only type of philosophy that he knew.
His family wanted Descartes to be a lawyer, like his father and many other relatives.
To this end, he went to Poitiers to study law, obtaining a degree in But he never practiced law or entered into the governmental service such practice would make possible Rodis-Lewis18— Instead, he became a gentleman soldier, moving in to Breda, to support the Protestant Prince Maurice against the Catholic parts of the Netherlands which parts later formed Belgiumwhich were controlled by Spain—a Catholic land, like France, but at this point an enemy.
Beeckman set various problems for Descartes, including questions about falling bodies, hydrostatics, and mathematical problems. Since antiquity, mathematics had been applied to various physical subject matters, in optics, astronomy, mechanics focusing on the leverand hydrostatics.
Beeckman and Descartes brought to this work a commitment to atoms as the basic constituents of matter; as had ancient atomists, they attributed not only size, shape, and motion but also weight to those atoms At this time, Descartes discovered and conveyed to Beeckman the fundamental insight that makes analytic geometry possible: Descartes himself did not foresee replacing geometrical constructions with algebraic formulas; rather, he viewed geometry as the basic mathematical science and he considered his algebraic techniques to provide a powerful alternative to actual compass-and-ruler constructions when the latter became too intricate.
Descartes attended the coronation and was returning to the army when winter caught him in the small town of Ulm or perhaps Neuburgnot far from Munich.
On the night of November 10,Descartes had three dreams that seemed to provide him with a mission in life. The dreams themselves are interesting and complex see Sebba Descartes took from them the message that he should set out to reform all knowledge.
He decided to begin with philosophy, since the principles of the other sciences must be derived from it 6: Descartes was familiar with both mainstream philosophy and recent innovators those who, among other things, rejected aspects of Aristotle's philosophyincluding reading that he did from on.
Inhe recalled 3: Francisco Toledo —96Antonio Rubio —and the Coimbran commentators active ca. Inhe recalled having read Thomas Campanella's De Sensu Rerum about fifteen years before, and not being much impressed 2: And in he was able to rattle off the names of recent innovators in philosophy 1: Descartes' activities during the early s are not well-documented.
He was in France part of the time, visiting Poitou to sell some inherited properties in and visiting Paris.
He went to Italy — Upon his return he lived in Paris, where he was in touch with mathematicians and natural philosophers in the circle of his long-time friend and correspondent Marin Mersenne — While in Paris, he worked on some mathematical problems and derived the sine law of refraction, which facilitated his work on formulating mathematically the shapes of lenses later published in the Dioptrics.
His major philosophical effort during these years was on the Rules, a work to convey his new method. In the Rules, he sought to generalize the methods of mathematics so as to provide a route to clear knowledge of everything that human beings can know.
His methodological advice included a suggestion that is familiar to every student of elementary geometry:Descartes had his fair share of opposing philosophers, but one of his main critiques was in the person of John Locke.
Rene Descartes Vs John Locke Philosophy Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of.
Descartes and Locke are two of the most scientifically respected philosophers in history that worked to develop theories about the foundation of life that could be understood in a scientific manner.
John Locke and Renee Descartes are .
Descartes and Locke: A Critical Comparison. René Descartes and John Locke, both seventeenth century philosophers, are often seen as two of the first early modern philosophers.
was influenced in part by Locke's reading of Descartes. Locke borrowed many of Descartes' philosophical ideas and objections and adopted much of his . the philosophy of Ren é Descartes and his followers, especially its emphasis on logical analysis, its mechanistic interpretation of physical nature, and its dualistic distinction between thought (mind) and extension (matter).
Context. René Descartes is generally considered the father of modern philosophy. He was the first major figure in the philosophical movement known as rationalism, a method of understanding the world based on the use of reason as the means to attain knowledge.
René Descartes (–) was a creative mathematician of the first order, an important scientific thinker, and an original metaphysician.